Chapter 2: Reasoning Study Guide


(use with pp. 64- 89 of the Course Companion)

***you can skip the IB Genie poem pp.65-7


  1.    The first 3 paragraphs on page 64 list some ways in which we reason. Think about your day (or yesterday). Using the terms as a guide, try to write down all the specific ways you used reasoning. For example, if you worked on some math problems for an hour or decided which sandwich to buy perhaps you predicted the surf conditions before you headed out!


I stayed home all day yesterday due to my wisdom teeth being removed a few days before that. During that time I spent a great deal of it with reasoning. When I woke up I took the medicines that were prescribed for the pain in my mouth so I compared the two medicines and decided then selected the medicine that I used in the morning. For breakfast I excluded anything solid to eat and included an all liquid diet which meant I was going to be eating a lot of smoothies and chicken broth. I estimated how long it would take for the pain and swelling in my cheeks to go down throughout the entire day and calculated how long it would take for my clothes to finish in the laundry. When making smoothies I compiled the different ingredients and blended them into a smoothie. I also worked on homework for a longtime trying my best to catch up with all of my missing work. It took counting, comparing, naming, selecting, and compiling. 


  1.    Curate an article or video on cognitive computing or cognition in general that appeals to you. Perhaps you want to find something that has to do with the relationship between REASONING and other WAYS OF KNOWING (emotions, sense perception, and language). Post and comment on. Try out this resource: 


After browsing the internet I found many interesting articles and videos about the relationship between reasoning and the ways of knowing. Below are the links to these articles and the very interesting ted talk as well. 


After watching and reading these two sources I was able to get a better understanding of cognitive computing and was able to but together how it works and the overall general idea of it. I thought it was very appealing when comparing reasoning and ways of knowing because although they are very different I had always looked at them as exactly the same thing when in fact they are very different. Reasoning is something every person subconsciously does, not only humans subconsciously reason constantly within their daily lives ,but many creatures and animals do as well. Since we were babies we were reasoning. Reasoning is the process of forming conclusions, judgments, or inferences from facts or premises. On the other hand ways of knowing are built up of four different ideas sense perception, language and authority, emotion and intuition, and logic and reason. 


3.    Think of a GENERALIZATION you have made or heard recently (see pg. 68). Can you describe some examples of harmful generalizations?

 There are many generalizations that are made everyday almost everything is generalized and judged into categories. I adore chips so a recent generalization I made is all chips are delicious ,but in fact there turns out to many chip brands that I don’t really care for such as lays due to their very oily structure. Overall there are many generalizations that people make especially in history. For example in 1861 the civil war occurred people of african american race were generalized to be less than the people of white origin. They were commonly generalized as dirty, un able to rule themselves, un civil, not educated and not capable of being educated, and as slave workers rather than actual people. This is an extremely false generalization that has been proven to be false during and after the civil war. Although some people still believe this generalization it is in no way actually true. 


  1.    ***note: be sure you understand the term “Implication”, (located in the green box on page 70) – it’s part of the TOK essay criteria.


Implication: is a logical relationship between two different ideas. For example A is true so therefore B must be true too or because of B, A is also true. A and B act as ideas. During class we studied that this is not also true, actually many ideas to not work this way. 


5.    Make up your own variables (actual words) for P and Q in the DEDUCTIVE REASONING exercise on page 70.  (just try this out so it makes more sense) – I tried “Swedes” and “blonde”.


A= fruits B= seeds 

  1. “All fruits have seeds” negated by “Some fruits are seedless” 
  2. “All seeds are in fruits” negated by “Seeds are not always in fruits” 


6.    What are the 2 KEY ASSERTIONS of deductive reasoning? What is the MAJOR DISTINCTION between “Validity” and “Truth”?


The two key assertions of deductive reasoning are validity and truth. There is a big difference between the two, validity applies to the process humans and animals go through when reasoning things and truth applies to actual facts and the general statement one would reason about. 


  1.    Pick up one of your textbooks OR find an article on an online newspaper. Identify its premises and its conclusion. Look for key word hints, such as those located at the top of page 73.  Are there any implicit premises (those not stated explicitly but implied)?  (***note: premises are sometimes called “assumptions”) 

I found this article on mokeys being able to swim on the internet. Here is the link.


    Is the major premise of the argument true? How could one find out?

The major premise of the argument is ultimately “Can monkeys swim and dive just like humans?” which happens to be the title of the article. The major premise of the argument is true because the entire article is supported proof of how apes can actually swim and dive. The article includes pictures and actual footage of apes swimming and diving in a swimming pool. The website I got then information from is also a well known company and a newspaper company where the information is closely checked and made sure to be true information before publication. 

 Is the argument valid? How would you know?

Yes the argument is valid because before this finding people thought that apes could not swim which is why zoos place water moats around the apes enclosure to make sure they don’t escape when in fact an argument has been made that apes can swim making the moat ineffective. 

 Assuming that the minor premise is true , is the conclusion true? How do you know? (see page 74 for help)

Luckily in this articles case the minor premise is true so therefore the conclusion is true as well. The article supports the idea and notion that apes can swim with research and proven videos of apes actually swimming. Therefore the overall conclusion that apes can swim is true as well. 


  1.    Construct your OWN deductive argument or “SYLLOGISM” using the template in the middle of page 73. (remember to go from general to particular…)


All moms are caring. 


I have mom. 


She is caring. 


  1.    Construct your OWN FALLACY, or invalid deductive argument, similar to the one on page 74-5.

The sun is bright. 


My shirt is bright.


My shirt is the sun. 


10. Be sure you understand what “COUNTER-ARGUMENTS” and “COUNTER-CLAIMS” are – as they are a huge part of the TOK assessments. (***if you ever get a chance, watch Red Eye – it’s full of them). Remember that a strong argument is both VALID and SOUND (see page 76)

 A counter argument is something that is opposed to your thesis or a part of your thesis. A counter claim is a claim made to offset another claim. Valid is a form of the argument such as the introduction or conclusion while the sound determines that the argument is valid and true. 


  1. In your own words, how does INDUCTIVE reasoning differ from deductive reasoning? Can you provide an example of how you personally have used inductive reasoning recently? (see page 76)

Deductive reasoning happens when a researcher works from the more general information to the the more specific. It is often called the “top down” because the researcher starts at the top with a very broad spectrum of information and works their way down to a very specific conclusion. Inductive reasoning is the complete opposite. It is when one moves from a more specific observations to broader generalizations and theories. Which is refereed to the “bottom up” approach. 

I have personally used the inductive reasoning study after I first found out that santa clause was fake in the first grade. After finding out that santa clause was fake I then concluded that the tooth fairy, and the easter bunny was fake as well. 


12.  In the last paragraph of page 77, the author states “Much of our knowledge about the natural sciences is based on generalizations backed by repeated observation of phenomena”. Can you provide an example of CLASSICAL induction from your own science courses (group 4)?


A classical induction is often made in my science courses which is biology. Due to the fact that not everyone takes biology and can understand biology lingo I will focus on my group four project where we compared the two different beach environments of lanikai beach and kailua beach. After conducting the experiment we concluded that lanikai beach was cleaner, calmer, and contained more marine life than kailua beach. 


13. Try the “random percentage” experiment discussed in the Statistics area of page 78. Type in 3 different random percentages into Google – what do you get? Try to find a statistic with a percentage via Twitter.


 Women give birth to triplets (or higher multiples) five times more frequently than in 1972. – Time Magazine, 10/26/09 


20% of 4 year olds in the United States are obese. – Time Magazine, 4/20/09 


According to Michael Hussey at PeekYou, the average Twitter users’ followers are 35% real people.


14.  Find an INFOGRAPHIC that not only offers statistics, but “tells the story” or offers correlations (see page 79). Look for great infographics on the links on my site:!best-sites/c1z7m


  1. Provide an example of ANALOGICAL REASONING from your own life. How likely are you to trust your own results, on a scale of 0 to 10?

An example of analogical reasoning from my own life when I browse funny youtube channels and trust that the recommended videos are videos that I would like. Unfortunately there are so many youtube videos in the world so there isn’t always relatable results. On a scale of 1 to 10 I usually trust it about a 4 or 5. 

16.  ***We might play the Crazy Captain’s game in class (Hypothetico-deductive reasoning)


  1.  Curate a TED TALK ( ) that highlights the use of CREATIVE REASONING (pg. 82), post and provide a brief overview. (***you might want to check out TED MED at the top)

Below is a Ted Talk that talks about 4 lessons in creativity. Here is the link.

 Julie Burstein talks about the four lessons of creativity. She uses pot making as an excellent example of creativity. Creativity goes out of everyday experiences such as letting go because creativity comes from the broken places. She also talks about the four aspects of life that we need to embrace in order to be creative. The first one is to pay attention to the things going around us such as events and the environment. Many artist claim that their creativity and inspiration is based from what is going on around us and being open for experiences approach you. The second aspect refers to the greatest things occur from the hardest experiences we go through because it is a powerful topic and stimulates passion. The third and forth aspect is to be able to let go of things that you might cling onto that prohibits you to experience other new situations. 


18.  Look around your bedroom OR your laptop: In what ways do you classify things? What is the method to your madness? Describe some common classifications in the AOKS (Areas of Knowledge, i.e. all your courses). Can you think of an example where technology or advances in science/ newfound “knowledge” has changed the classification system?


After looking on my laptop desktop I realized that I made a folder for each class so that I am able to easily find a paper or assignment that I am working on. I also saved all of my work from last year and placed folders within the subjects folders that are easily identifies as my junior year in high school and my senior year in high school. This is just to be able to identify things and easily find them when I need them. There are also many situations where science is advanced due to technology such as the use of telescopes for biology and chemistry studied and the technology of x rays and gamma wave detectors in psychology. 

19. ***We will do more exercises with classification in class.


20. Pages 86-7 discuss the dangers of classification, i.e. racism, stereotypes, and other prejudices. CURATE a relatively recent ARTICLE or VIDEO  that highlights an instance of one of these issues.

 Here is radio channel on racism and the affect it has on children.

This radio channel demonstrates that children are highly influenced by the way parents describe racism and how they talk about it in an extremely negative way that already psychologically tricks the child into believing that they don’t stand a chance ,or that they are already set up for failure or in the opposing situation thinks they are better than other people. This is an extremely important issue that needs to be solved and which researchers are curating to solve. They think racism should be something that is great thing to talk about and is motivational and encouraging topic to never repeat or to stop doing/ practicing the idea of racism. 



21. What stereotypes, generalizations, or prejudices do you think you have?

 I really try my best to avoid and not have stereotypes, generalizations and prejudices because I wouldn’t want anyone categorizing me in labels and what not ,but I do admit to stereotyping the new freshman in the beginning of the year as a bit immature. Although I feel guilty about thinking that in the beginning of the year because I wouldn’t want people saying that about me. I’ve noticed that they are not that immature for freshman and probably much more mature than my freshman class. 

22. TRY IT OUT: Take Harvard’s Race or Gender TEST: OR the Diet and Lifestyle or Race and Advertising TEST at


* follow-up reflection questions on pp.88-89 of your text


I took the diet and lifestyle or race and advertising test. It was almost traumatizing to take because I felt so bad answering the questions truthfully. In the beginning they asked me if I had pets and if I would intentionally cause harm to animals which of course I said no to because i’d never want to hurt an animal ,but then they started asking questions about my diet and awareness of the animal cruelty that occurs and saluter houses and farms. The horrible truth is that I do know about these things that occur in farms and saluter houses and the harm that is placed upon the animals yet I still buy and consume animal products which is very contradicting. It was shocking to me after taking the survey because I hadn’t really realized or thought about what I’m doing when I purchased that chicken bake from costco or at the hamburger from burger king, although initially I know what goes on in a farm to a basic extent. I felt that this survey was very educational for me because I never really made that connection and how contradicting I actually am, but it made me more aware of what I am actually doing and informed me of how I can ,ale the less cruel choice in my diets. 

The interview I took was designed to explore the topic of moral decision making with respect to animals used in food production. Some of the main research questions include:

  • Where do people draw the line on what is an acceptable use of animals?
  • How do people decide whether a practice is morally acceptable?
  • If people behave in a way that violates their own moral principles, will they change their behavior? 

Summer Video

Here is a video summary of what I have done over the summer. I’m sorry it is not in popcorn maker ;the program is not working on my computer. 

Language as a Way of Knowing Multi-Task Blog Post

Language as a Way of Knowing Multi-Task Blog Post


1. READ pages 32-49 in your Green TOK Course Companion.

2. Choose 1 QUOTE from the list above and comment on it with your own personal thoughts and real- life examples.

“The word is half his that speaks, and half his that hears it”- Michel de Montaigne

I chose this quote because I found it most interesting and appealing than the other quotes. I believe that in life one should be able to listen and (hear) others and their opinion whether they agree or disagree and should also be able to speak their opinion to others as well whether they agree or disagree. I am constantly placed in this position daily when interacting with my peers, teachers, and parents. I am constantly battling and trying to find a fair, perfect balance when listening and talking to others, but it can sometimes be a challenge especially when you or the other person doesn’t agree with your opinion or want to hear what you have to say. It is a constant challenge between me and my parents when battling who gets to speak during conversations and disagreements. Although, I am finding that I agree with this quote and agreeing that it is true that the world is half speaking and half listens. People should equally be influenced and influence others with their opinions and their perspectives on certain topics so that everyone may take in differences and eventually determine their own opinions.

3. Choose 1 LINKING QUESTION. Comment on it with your own personal thoughts and real-life examples from the world or your experiences. Find a related article or video that would support your answer, and describe how it does.

Emotion: Does the way you describe something affect how you feel about it? What is the power of language? What roles do context, emotion, and selection, emphasis, and word choice play in language?

The way someone describes something definitely affects how one feels about the situation, because they way the information is being describes is most likely biased towards the way someone is presenting it. The context of the information being expresses can totally affect how someone feels about it because the context of something means the parts of a written or spoken statement that preceded or follow a specific word or passage where opinion plays a great role. I personally feel that the emotion is the most influential when someone expresses their opinion towards someone else because it is made clear where the person stands through their voice level and their obvious emotions on the topic. For example when my parents tell me “we need to talk” I can already make an educated guess about what we will be talking about through their emotion they express towards me for example if they are mad when talking I already know I must be in trouble. This is also the case when hearing story from other people for example when my friends get into an argument and I am not there their emotions at the time affect the things they say to me for example if the event had just occurred and they are clearly still extremely upset they will say much meaner and harsher things and if the event had time to settle for a couple days they say much more less biased information about the events that occurred. Context, emotion, selection, emphasis, and word choice play a huge role on language and how information is expresses one could completely make information biased or different in perspective with the usage of these extremely important events in language.  I used this very interesting website to help write this paragraph which has helped e conquer on how these factors express communication.

4. CHOOSE SIX of the 20 proposed Blog Questions and answer them thoughtfully, providing examples as you go. Try to find other articles, tweets, images or videos that would support your answer and post along with it.

1.  Try to define as precisely as possible these words:

a. triangle

  • three (3) sides
  • three (3) angles
  • the sum of 180o

a closed plane figure having three sides and three angles.

b. love

a profoundly tender, passionate affection for another person.

a feeling of warm personal attachment or deep affection, as for a parent, child, or friend.

1 Corinthians 13:4-8

New International Version (NIV)

Love is patient, love is kind. It does not envy, it does not boast, it is not proud. It does not dishonor others, it is not self-seeking, it is not easily angered, it keeps no record of wrongs. Love does not delight in evil but rejoices with the truth. It always protects, always trusts, always hopes, always perseveres.

Love never fails. But where there are prophecies, they will cease; where there are tongues, they will be stilled; where there is knowledge, it will pass away.

c. table


what is the difference? Which was easiest to define?

2. Birds fly and planes fly. Since fish swim, why don’t we say that submarines also swim? What do submarines do?

3. What would be the advantages  and disadvantages of everyone in the world spoke a common language? What would be gained and what would be lost?

4.  Take 2 advertising slogans of your choice – such as “Just Do It” by Nike- explain why you think they are effective (or not)

5.  Do you agree with the old rhyme “Sticks and stones may break my bones but names will never hurt me”? In light of the effects of cyberbullying, how might you analyse this quote?

6.  Do you think communication would be improved if we got rid of vague words?  DO you think vague or ambiguous words sometimes serve a purpose?

5. COMMENT with your own personal thoughts or questions on the 4 VIDEOS found on this blog post.

6. PARTNER GROUP PRESENTATION (or alone if you wish): PERUSE the DIIGO and DELICIOUS LISTS (linked at the top) of things I’ve curated about Language. Choose ONE that seems interesting to you both and prepare a presentation of 3-4 slides MAX for the class. Use GOOGLE PRESENTATION and paste info in this doc:

a. give us an overview of the article or video

b. identify at least 1 knowledge question or issue in the article or video (***should be in the form of an open-ended question, with the question about knowledge itself)

c. show different perspectives and/or connections to other subjects (Areas of Knowledge) or Ways of Knowing – the linking questions above have some categories


Touch and Sound Blog reflection


Choose 6 articles to peruse for each category (Touch and Sound) -so, a total of 12.

6 articles for touch:

Gene Tweak Opens Sensory Black Box

Summary: Researchers researched and studied low-threshold mechanosensory receptors in order to better familiar themselves and deeply understand and create a complex map of touch and better understand touch receptors in living things. They experimented with mice testing and evaluating experiments to determine how their touch receptors work and can be altered.

Question:  Is it even possible for scientist to fully understand the connection between touch and the brain within all creatures?

Hands On Research: The Science of Touch

Summary: This article defined how important touch and feeling was with human psychology and human development. Touch also has  greatly increased human health and overall happiness with people and commonly is identified by love, empathy, and compassion with both men and women.

Question: Do people keep in mind that touch can increase compassion and love for the opposite sex and therefore plan to stimulate this through touch when dating?

10 Psychological Effects on Nonsexual Touch

Summary: Touch is also linked into helping people make better choices with compassion and consciousness such as returning a lost item, assisting in a certain action, view and judge people differently, and is also linked with spending more money depending on the location and timing of touch.

Question: Is this something taught with companies and salesman to better sell their product?

Art Installation: Marrying the Best Fairy Tale Kiss

Summary: This article talked about how the Ukraine women were forced to close their eyes and lay on beds, while men enter the room and are allowed to kiss the female if they were interested in becoming her husband. If the women opened her eyes during a kiss she would be then forced to marry him all from the perception of the kiss and nothing else.

Question: What if modern American girls were forced to get married this way? The divorce rate would surely go up.

Hands on Research: The Science of Touch

Summary: Researches state how touch can positively enhance emotional respeonses between people and animals with increasing compassion, happiness, health, and well being, which is why hugs and physical contact usually subconsciously bring happiness to others.

Question: Which locations of touch mainly stimulate these enhancing emotional responses?

Touch Illusions

Summary: Researches find that it is extremely easy to trick the mind by thinking they are being touch but in reality not being touched at all. This is found through numerous amounts of research and

Question: Is it hard to trick the mind into thinking they are touching something or something is touching them? What methods are used in doing so?

Dating With Science: Touch

Summary: Scientist have found that touch can stimulate people into liking each other more because it is liked into a romantic feeling and creates an subconscious attraction towards both people.

Question: Does touching partners create longer lasting relationships overall?

6 articles for sounds

How Does Sound Affect Our Creativity?

Summary: Researchers conducted an experiment where a number amount of different participants were placed into three different rooms. One of the rooms contained information at a lower level of sounds being displayed; another room had a medium level of sound being displayed, following the third room with a loud level of sounds being displayed. The study found that the medium level sound room created a better concentration focus for the participants.

Question: Do teachers sound level have an effect on students learning in class?

Beethoven’s Deafness Influenced His Music

Summary: Beethoven used medium and loud frequencies to compose music because he could focus best and clearly hear the music. After turning deaf he used these frequencies to compose music in replacement to sound.

Question: Was Beethoven’s of similar quality after he became deaf and relied on his memory or frequencies?

History of Sound

Summary: This article was represented through a timeline and explaining the invention of the first sound recording machine, the beginning of the electric era, and the digital era.

Question: How has this developed and improved overtime?

The Cocktail Party Effect

Summary: This effect is the ideal of selective hearing where people are able to turn their sounds off and on depending on the thing being expressed or comprehend two different conversations at the same time. Studies have found that if two conversations are occurring at the same time it is easier for people to perceive the information if the sound is coming from two different ears.

Question: Is it possible for numerous amounts of conversations (more than two) be perceived my a person at more than one time?

Make a City Sound Better

Summary: A taxi was created where the noise from traffic was converted into music for the person riding in the taxi through special headphones.

Question: Why is this important when we have things like the radio?

Does Sounds Influence Taste?

Summary: Different foods do create and make different sounds this is basically derived from past experienced with foods and sounds associated with them.

Question: Do more than one item of food create the same sound or is it different for every person?